Grass-bacteria associations in relation to nitrogen supply in the humid tropical soils by E. O. Auma

Cover of: Grass-bacteria associations in relation to nitrogen supply in the humid tropical soils | E. O. Auma

Published by Egerton University College in Njoro, Kenya .

Written in English

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Edition Notes

Book details

Statementby E.O. Auma.
SeriesResearch paper series / Egerton University College ;, no. 4 (April 1986), Research paper series (Egerton University College) ;, no. 4.
Classifications
LC ClassificationsMLCM 90/00417 (S)
The Physical Object
Pagination15 leaves ;
Number of Pages15
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL2181600M
LC Control Number88980062

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Auma,Egerton University College edition, in EnglishPages:   Over the last 20 years many new species of N2-fixing bacteria have been discovered in association with grasses, cereals and other non-nodulating crops. Virtually all of these bacteria are microaerophylic, fixing N2 only in the presence of low partial pressures of oxygen.

Until a few years ago much attention was focussed on members the genusAzospirillum and it was assumed that N2 fixation Cited by:   Transects from humid areas at the equator towards the deserts can be summarized as follows: High availability of nitrogen, low availability of phosphorus, low pH and aluminium toxicity probably restrict the competitiveness of nitrogen-fixing species in the forests on highly weathered and leached soils in humid west and central by:   INTRODUCTION.

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season C 4 grass that is native to the tallgrass prairies of North America, and it has been targeted for development as a bioenergy crop by the U.S. Department of Energy ().Its features, such as perenniality, adaptation to diverse edaphic conditions, wide geographic distribution, growth on acidic soils, and mutualistic associations with.

Various anaerobic, facultative, and aerobic bacteria are capable of fixing nitrogen in soil, in the rhizosphere, and in roots. Interest in aerobic organisms has been generally greater because aerobic metabolism is more efficient, and because agricultural soils, with.

More so, restoration and maintenance of soil health through soil carbon and nitrogen management has remained a major challenge for tropical soils. To make this successful, the comprehensive knowledge of the sequestration of carbon and nitrogen in the tropical soils should form an essential pre-requisite in future land resource management : Ahukaemere Cm, Irokwe If, Onwudike Su, Agim Lc, Aririguzo Bn.

co-metabolism, associations, and symbioses. Being privileged objects of microbiological research performed on temperate soils, microbial associations with plants are of major impact in tropical settings: their essentiality to tropical agriculture is eloquently demonstrated in Chaps.

8– Many soils in the humid region are too acid to permit a vigorous growth of bacteria. Under such conditions the fungi commonly become dominant. However, when large amounts of plant materials are added to very acid soils, bacterial multiplication can often proceed at a rapid rate for a time because under these conditions the organisms are largely.

Its chief distinguishing feature is that it is acid-tolerant to as low as pH It resembles Azofobacter very closely in nitrogen-faing ability and in growth. It is found most commonly in tropical soils, doubtless because it can tolerate their low pH, but has been reported also in cooler climates.

able development among tropical and nontropical countries alike, with special concern for the world's humid tropics. This report focuses on the humid tropics, a biogeographical area within the tropical zone that contains most of its population and biologically rich natural resources.

removal of nitrogen from the system at levels above required crop uptake. This is accomplished through processes such as denitrification and excess nitrogen uptake by the crop. This may allow increased application of nitrogen above that normally considered as an agronomic rate to adequately supply the crop.

However, whenever the application rate. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid the soils of the Philippines are varied but are generally not as weathered as most humid tropical soils because of their relatively younger age.

indicated that the tree showed promise as a hedgerow intercrop that could supply large quantities of nitrogen and organic matter to a. Nitrogen is absolutely vital for plants, and boosting this nutrient in your soil will help you grow healthier flowers, herbs, and vegetables. There are many organic methods you can use, which we’ll cover in this your complete beginner’s guide on how to add nitrogen to the soil.

About 40% of the agricultural land in the European Union (EU) is grassland used for animal production. When grassland is tilled, organically bound carbon and nitrogen are released, providing substrates for nitrifying and denitrifying microorganisms.

The aim of this study was to examine the immediate effects of tillage of a perennial grassland carried out on different dates, on the emissions of. that the amount of diazotrophs in tropical soils has been vastly hot-humid planes to tropical and montane subtr by biological or chemical nitrogen fixation.

Since biospheric nitrogen is Author: Euan Kevin James. nitrogen cycling, and nitrogen losses through leaching, runoff, or denitrification. Organic matter decomposes releasing N more quickly in warm humid climates and slower in cool dry climates.

This N release is also quicker in well aerated soils and much slower on wet saturated soils. Nitrogen can readily leach out of the root zone inFile Size: 1MB. Waterlogging and its effects on nitrogen of soil and plant A large proportion of soils in the humid tropical zone of Nigeria have on 21 acid and five alkaline soils in relation to their.

Dommergues YR () Nitrogen fixation by trees in relation to soil nitrogen economy. Fertilizer Research – Google Scholar Duguma B, Mollet M and Tiki Manga T () Annual Progress Report, Institute of Agronomic Research (IRA) and International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), AFRENA Report, ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya Google Cited by: In terms of soil total carbon (Total C) and total nitrogen (Total N), the soils in this study had higher values in surface soils than in subsurface soils.

The soil Total C value for surface soil ranged from to g kg −1 and that for subsurface soil ranged from to g kg −1. Tropical Soil. Tropical soil is organic soil, sometimes referred to as peat soil, which, by definition, according to Couwenberg (), is soil with more than 20% of organic matter.

From: Soil Management and Climate Change, Related terms: Saprolite; Biochar; pH; Kaolinite; Nitrogen; Phosphorus. The relative amounts of each form of phosphorus vary greatly among soils, with the total amount of P in a clayey-textured soil being up to ten times greater than in a sandy soil.

Figure 4. Simplified phosphorus cycle in soils Organic P in soils. A large number of compounds make up the organic P in soils, with the majority being of microbial origin. Nitrifying bacteria are suppressed in forest soils, so that most of the nitrogen remains as ammonium.

Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate to nitrogen (N2) or nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Denitrifiers are anaerobic, meaning they are active where oxygen is absent, such as in saturated soils.

Figure 4. A MinuteEarth video about how trees create rainfall, and vice versa. Savannas are grasslands with scattered trees and are found in Africa, South America, and northern Australia (Figure 4 below). Savannas are hot, tropical areas with temperatures averaging from 24 o C –29 o C (75 o F –84 o F) and an annual rainfall of 51– cm (20–50 in).).

Savannas have an extensive dry Author: Matthew R. Fisher. Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been increasing globally, especially in the warm and humid climatic zone in Asia some tropical and subtropical forests of southern China, inorganic N deposition is 30–73 kg N ha −1 yr −1 and among the highest in the world e effects of enhanced N deposition, including soil acidification, nutrient imbalance, loss of plant diversity Cited by: N.

Fageria's research works with 9, citations reads, including: Comparative Efficiency of Nitrogen Sources for Lowland Rice Production. Review: Nitrogen Fixing Microorganisms Bagali Shrimant Shridhar but the association remains is related with diverse factors which determine the as Rhizoba in rot nodules of legumes or frankia widespread in the soils of tropical, subtropical and actinomycetes in non-leguminous Size: KB.

Since almost all soil nitrogen is derived from the atmosphere, in the absence of substantial use of nitrogen fertilizer most of the remaining nitrogen pool is a product of BNF, either recent or past.

nitrogen to ammonia within root-nodules on the plants. This process is called biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). It is a crucial source of nitrogen for ag riculture. Nitrogen is the nutrient that is most often in short supply, limiting plant growth. For good crop production farmers usually need to add nitrogen to their soils, either as organic.

Unfortunately, this book can't be printed from the OpenBook. Visit to get more information about this book, to buy it in print, or to download it as a free PDF. Book: Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils, Agronomy Monogr Published by: American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America Index TOC by Author.

Numerous nitrogen (N) sources exist. Consider these when evaluating the N budget. Soil type and climate greatly affect nitrogen loss from the soil system. Because Minnesota has such diverse soils and climate, N cycle interpretations should be site-specific.

Here, we’ll cover how nitrogen behaves. This is because of the high C:N ratio, or low percentage of nitrogen, in grasses near maturity. The problem can be avoided by killing the grass early or by adding extra nitrogen in the form of fertilizer or manure.

Another way to help with this problem is to supply extra nitrogen by seeding a. Turfgrass soils vary considerably in physical and chemical composition. However, regardless of their properties, most contain a vast array of living organisms, ranging from larger creatures such as earthworms and insects, to microscopic invertebrates, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, yeasts, algae and protozoa.

All of these organisms affect turfgrass health in important ways. In unpublished experiments, co-author John McLachlan, director of the Tulane Center for Bioenvironmental Research, showed that the same three pesticides disrupt NodD signaling in Rhizobium sp.

strain NGR, a bacterium that fixes nitrogen in symbiosis with more than leguminous plants growing in tropical and subtropical soils.

“Many of Cited by: 9. This book is devoted to the problem of the interaction between soil microorganisms and higher plants. The material presented includes basic information on the structure, development, variability and classification of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi in the light of recent scientific achievements, as well as information on the.

for conversion of NH4-N to NO3-N. Ammonium nitrogen concentrations of ppm are common. Levels above 10 ppm NH4-N may occur in cold, wet soils or in soils irrigated with a water supply that is high in ammonium nitrogen. Total nitrogen which is a measure of all organic and inorganic forms of nitrogen in soil can be determined with soil Size: 33KB.

Bacteria, including Bradyrhizobium, can remove the nitrogen that plants need from the soil by converting it to gases released into the atmosphere. One step of. drivers such as nitrogen (N) deposition are likely to feed back on ecosystem C and nutrient cycling through the effects on microbial community composition and activity.

Nitrogen deposition is increasing rapidly in tropical regions (Galloway et al. ), where forests on highly weathered soils tend to be rich in N relative to temperate forests. Furthermore, the positive effect of fertilizer N in tropical, humid subtropical, and temperate soils ranged from 3 to 16% for SOC and 8 to 15% for SON, with the highest increases observed in the tropical environment.

Due to inherently lower status of SOC and N than in temperate soils, the relatively higher positive effect of fertilizer N Cited by: Preston, S. (), ‘Investigations of compost x fertilizer interactions in sweet potato grown on volcanic ash soils in the highlands of Papua New Guinea’, Tropical Agriculture, pp –.

@article{osti_, title = {Tropical organic soils ecosystems in relation to regional water resources in southeast Asia}, author = {Armentano, T. V.}, abstractNote = {Tropical organic soils have functioned as natural sinks for carbon, nitrogen, slfur and other nutrients for the past years or more.

Topographic evolution in peat swamp forests towards greater oligotrophy has concentrated.These soils often occur in localized patches surrounded by other soil types; typically the vegetation changes abruptly from nonserpentine to serpentine soils.

Serpentine soils are rich in magnesium, chromium, and nickel, but they contain very little calcium, molybdenum, nitrogen, and phosphorus.The soils and climate datasets are available with the book published through the Soil Science Society of America.

The analysis and discussion option provides a detailed written summary and analysis that can help identify shortcomings in water and nitrogen management strategies.

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